Mathematical Physics and Mathematical Biology

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On the Missing Basmallah: a hint

Posted by Négadi on September 25, 2012 at 5:40 PM

The Holy Quran comes with 114 Suras and 6236verses and each sura is labeled by two numbers: Nv,  the vulgate-number, and Nr,the revelation-number. One of the greatest mysteries of the Quran isthe  “missing” of the Basmallah “In the name of God, the Almighty,the Merciful” at the beginning of sura 9 (Al-Tawba). Sincea long time, it has been observed that it is in fact found, later, insideSura 27 “Al-Naml” (“The Ants”;), while the Queen of Sheba reads the letterSolomon sent her: “It is fromSolomon, and it reads: ‘In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful’”.“‘Donot be arrogant towards me and come to me as submitters’”. The precise location is therefore 27:30-and-31,not "27:30", only, as people frequently say. Thisis because one has to preserve the integrity and the meaning of the wholesentence. The cumul function Cum(S,V)[1]counts the number of verses at a given sura S and a given verse V. We have, inthe above case Cum(27, 31)=3190and therefore, for the complement, 6236- Cum(27, 31)=3046.

We turn now to life and biology. The fundamentalingredients of life are the nucleic acids (RNA, DNA) and the twenty(coded via the genetic code) amino acids. It is thought today that RNAcould be  the fundamental player, at theorigin of life some 3.8 billions years ago. RNA has four components the ribonucleotidesUMP (uridinemonophosphate), CMP (cytidine monophosphate), AMP (adenosinemonophosphate) and GMP (guanosine monophosphate), each one of themmade of (i) a sugar, (ii) a phosphate group and (iii) a nucleobase,respectively U (uracil), U (cytosine), A (adenine) and G (guanine) . Now, the genetic code,  which is shared by the greatmajority of the living organisms, including ourselves, uses a well-definedcollection of 64 DNA-triplets (codons), 64 RNA-triplets (codons) and, foreach one of these two sets, 61 amino acids coded (via 61 codons, takinginto account the degeneracy). Each codon (RNA or DNA) is made of three nucleobases(a triplet) and, in 64 such triplets, there are 192 nucleobases and eachnucleobase appears an equal number of times 48 (=192/4). Note that in the 61codons there 183 (192-9) nucleobases because 9 nucleobases correspond to the 3 terminationor stop codons. In the following, we shall take the atom-numbercontained in the nucleobases as our selected informative variable.The number of atoms in the four RNA nucleobases (or nucleotides) are U=12,C=13, A=15, G=16 (total 56) and, in the four DNA nucleobases, T=15, C=13, A=15and G=16 (total 59). Now we compute total number of atoms in the set of64 RNA-codons and 64 DNA-codons and also the number of hydrogen atoms intwo times 61 amino acids (2´358, see the Table), one time for storage (in DNA) andone time for transmission (via RNA). We get


This new result, which gives again the total number of verses(see above), could be rearranged  to fitour earlier result: 2832+3404=6236, where the last number refers to the totalnumber of nucleons in the 61 amino acids (see our blog at: On could easily rearrange the above relation, in asymmetrical manner (DNA, on the one hand, and RNA, on the other), to get


We see therefore that the above relation is in excellent agreement with thelocation of the missing  basmallah. We could do even more. Thestructural difference between DNA and RNA relies on the replacement T®U and, in the processof translation from DNA to RNA, T®A. BecauseT and A have the same number of atoms, we could group U (12 atoms) either withT (15 atoms) or with A (15 atoms) to get


The first number, 1296, corresponds to Cum(9, 61)=1296, i.e., sura 9(Al-Tawba) verse 61. This sura has  Nv=9,Nr=113 and the 129 as the total number of verses. From the latter fournumbers 9, 61, 113 and 129, only, we are able to derive several important andmeaningful characteristic numbers of the chemical structure of the geneticcode. This will be shown, together with other new results, in a future publication.

Tidjani Négadi, September 25, 2012

[email protected]

[1] See for exampleF. Gabteni, "De la psalmodie au codage numérique"; pages292-296 ;



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